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  9. \newcommand{\topic}{Vulnerability Scanning with OpenVAS}
  10. \newcommand{\course}{EDA263/DIT641 Computer Security}
  11. \newcommand{\authorA}{Martins Eglitis (Group 64)}
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  146. \backslash
  147. start
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  151. \begin_layout Standard
  152. \begin_inset CommandInset toc
  153. LatexCommand tableofcontents
  154. \end_inset
  155. \begin_inset Newpage pagebreak
  156. \end_inset
  157. \end_layout
  158. \begin_layout Section
  159. Introduction
  160. \end_layout
  161. \begin_layout Standard
  162. Together with the expansion of the Internet, which started in 1980s, numerous
  163. network related problems and threats emerged.
  164. New Internet technologies introduced new opportunities, for example, web
  165. servers, web browsers, programming languages designed or adapted for web
  166. development.
  167. Security was not a big concern at the beginning but became one soon after
  168. the expansion of the Internet in 1990s.
  169. \end_layout
  170. \begin_layout Standard
  171. Nowadays, modern computers possess great computational powers and capabilities
  172. that must be protected at every stage using the appropriate mechanisms.
  173. The three stages are can be assumed as - outside, border, and inside stage.
  174. The outside stage is not directly related to your computer but still casts
  175. a shadow on protection indirectly, for example, computer viruses that are
  176. sent over emails but have not affected your system yet.
  177. The best way to protect this stage by using legal means of protection and
  178. education.
  179. The border stage is the front line of security both physical and digital,
  180. for example, routers, switches, ports, and protocols.
  181. The protection mechanisms for this stage are physical protection, data
  182. encryption, etc.
  183. The inside stage everything that follows the border stage and basically
  184. is the system that is ought to be protected the most.
  185. Some of the methods to protect the inside stage are using security scanning
  186. programs, regularly scanning the system, backups, etc.
  187. [
  188. \begin_inset CommandInset ref
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  190. reference "enu:Magnus-Almgren,-Computer"
  191. plural "false"
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  195. ].
  196. If we, as a society, assume (and we should) that the
  197. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  198. \end_inset
  199. inside
  200. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  201. \end_inset
  202. stage contains very important information then the best way, in theory,
  203. protecting it is at the
  204. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  205. \end_inset
  206. border
  207. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  208. \end_inset
  209. stage.
  210. However, we have to sacrifice security and open area for vulnerabilities
  211. in return of capabilities.
  212. For example, to serve web content, a webserver might listen on port 80
  213. and serve the client the content.
  214. Some threats are obvious here - DDoS attacks on the port by exhausting
  215. system resources (memory, CPU time, IO), unauthorized access, file discovery,
  216. cross-site scripting, identity theft, etc.
  217. \end_layout
  218. \begin_layout Standard
  219. In this project, I will first introduce the overall architecture of the
  220. OpenVAS program and vulnerability scanning in general.
  221. Then I will concentrate on scanning network related vulnerabilities in
  222. the
  223. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  224. \end_inset
  225. border
  226. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  227. \end_inset
  228. stage using OpenVAS and reporting the outcome.
  229. Finally, I will present my findings regarding the particular system and
  230. recommendations on how to improve security.
  231. \end_layout
  232. \begin_layout Section
  233. OpenVAS setup
  234. \end_layout
  235. \begin_layout Standard
  236. The following image shows the structure of OpenVAS
  237. \end_layout
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  248. filename architecture.png
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  250. \begin_inset Caption Standard
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  252. OpenVAS structure [
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  261. \end_layout
  262. \end_inset
  263. \end_layout
  264. \end_inset
  265. \end_layout
  266. \begin_layout Standard
  267. In layman's terms, both CLI and web interfaces can be used to communicate
  268. with the OpenVAS server.
  269. The server consists of a scanner and a manager.
  270. In this project I will be using a web-based client, the Greenbone Security
  271. Assistant.
  272. Data, such as network vulnerability tests (NVT), config, and results are
  273. passed to the server.
  274. Finally, the server executes the scan against the provided targets.
  275. \end_layout
  276. \begin_layout Standard
  277. Just as the name suggests, vulnerability scanning is useful for finding
  278. weaknesses in systems.
  279. The main types of vulnerability scanning are [
  280. \begin_inset CommandInset ref
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  282. reference "enu:Karen-Scarfone,-Murugiah"
  283. plural "false"
  284. caps "false"
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  287. ]:
  288. \end_layout
  289. \begin_layout Enumerate
  290. Network scanners
  291. \end_layout
  292. \begin_layout Enumerate
  293. Application scanners
  294. \end_layout
  295. \begin_layout Enumerate
  296. Database scanners
  297. \end_layout
  298. \begin_layout Standard
  299. One should not target systems / services / ports freely and there are two
  300. main reasons for it.
  301. The first reason is that vulnerability scanning must be coordinated with
  302. the authorities of the respective system because they might contain restricted,
  303. even confidential data.
  304. The second reason is that one might put extra load on the system resources
  305. while performing the scan.
  306. \end_layout
  307. \begin_layout Standard
  308. One of the most important configuration data used by the server is NVTs.
  309. Basically, different NVT are used because it can help to decrease the execution
  310. time and system resource usage, as well as build on the concept of security
  311. ethics.
  312. Another type of configuration data is configuration files / profiles which,
  313. just as the name suggests, holds information such as (but not limited to)
  314. IP address, agent, user, operating system, etc.
  315. Finally, the third type of configuration data is results, which can be
  316. used both to execute the next tests with different parameters or produce
  317. the final scan report.
  318. The aim of the specific scans is to target specific vulnerabilities.
  319. \end_layout
  320. \begin_layout Enumerate
  321. Port scanning - scan a subset containing most widely used ports by services.
  322. \end_layout
  323. \begin_layout Enumerate
  324. Service fingerprinting - find what service is using a port, what is the
  325. version, protocol, etc.
  326. of the service.
  327. \end_layout
  328. \begin_layout Enumerate
  329. Remote host fingerprinting - find the hostname, the operating system, etc.
  330. of the remote host.
  331. \end_layout
  332. \begin_layout Enumerate
  333. Vulnerability scanning - fingerprint systems / services / ports and compare
  334. against known vulnerabilities.
  335. \end_layout
  336. \begin_layout Standard
  337. I am choosing which scans to perform based on the assignment objectives
  338. but the same idea holds true for other cases - one should always have an
  339. approved plan of how the vulnerability scanning will be done.
  340. I use the results of the scans to report the security status at the given
  341. time and suggest system improvements in terms of security.
  342. \end_layout
  343. \begin_layout Section
  344. Results
  345. \end_layout
  346. \begin_layout Standard
  347. The host used in the scans is 192.168.1.11 (newyork.secnet).
  348. \end_layout
  349. \begin_layout Subsection
  350. Port scanning
  351. \end_layout
  352. \begin_layout Standard
  353. Table 1 shows the open ports and the threat level.
  354. It can be seen that the system most likely runs Windows since most of the
  355. services / ports are not used on Linux machines (except for telnet, which
  356. is hardly ever used nowadays with public networks).
  357. The OpenVAS reports all the tuples as level = Log, which can be considered
  358. safe.
  359. \end_layout
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  444. telnet (23 / tcp)
  445. \end_layout
  446. \end_inset
  447. </cell>
  448. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  449. \begin_inset Text
  450. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  451. Log
  452. \end_layout
  453. \end_inset
  454. </cell>
  455. </row>
  456. </lyxtabular>
  457. \end_inset
  458. \end_layout
  459. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  460. \begin_inset Caption Standard
  461. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  462. Port scanning results
  463. \end_layout
  464. \end_inset
  465. \end_layout
  466. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  467. \end_layout
  468. \end_inset
  469. \end_layout
  470. \begin_layout Subsection
  471. Service fingerprinting
  472. \end_layout
  473. \begin_layout Standard
  474. Table 2 shows the services and the threat level.
  475. Only two of them have
  476. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  477. \end_inset
  478. Low
  479. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  480. \end_inset
  481. , which is a bit higher level than
  482. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  483. \end_inset
  484. Log
  485. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  486. \end_inset
  487. level but still possess little to no risk on the system.
  488. The two of them are ntp and telnet.
  489. The other 8 services pose no threat to the system.
  490. \end_layout
  491. \begin_layout Standard
  492. \begin_inset Float table
  493. placement H
  494. wide false
  495. sideways false
  496. status open
  497. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  498. \noindent
  499. \align center
  500. \begin_inset Tabular
  501. <lyxtabular version="3" rows="11" columns="3">
  502. <features tabularvalignment="middle">
  503. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  504. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  505. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  506. <row>
  507. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  508. \begin_inset Text
  509. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  510. \series bold
  511. Service (Port)
  512. \end_layout
  513. \end_inset
  514. </cell>
  515. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  516. \begin_inset Text
  517. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  518. \series bold
  519. Threat Level
  520. \end_layout
  521. \end_inset
  522. </cell>
  523. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  524. \begin_inset Text
  525. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  526. \series bold
  527. Comment
  528. \end_layout
  529. \end_inset
  530. </cell>
  531. </row>
  532. <row>
  533. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  534. \begin_inset Text
  535. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  536. ntp (123 / udp)
  537. \end_layout
  538. \end_inset
  539. </cell>
  540. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  541. \begin_inset Text
  542. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  543. Low
  544. \end_layout
  545. \end_inset
  546. </cell>
  547. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  548. \begin_inset Text
  549. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  550. Widely used
  551. \end_layout
  552. \end_inset
  553. </cell>
  554. </row>
  555. <row>
  556. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  557. \begin_inset Text
  558. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  559. telnet (23 / tcp)
  560. \end_layout
  561. \end_inset
  562. </cell>
  563. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  564. \begin_inset Text
  565. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  566. Low
  567. \end_layout
  568. \end_inset
  569. </cell>
  570. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  571. \begin_inset Text
  572. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  573. Local network only
  574. \end_layout
  575. \end_inset
  576. </cell>
  577. </row>
  578. <row>
  579. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  580. \begin_inset Text
  581. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  582. telnet (23 / tcp)
  583. \end_layout
  584. \end_inset
  585. </cell>
  586. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  587. \begin_inset Text
  588. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  589. Log
  590. \end_layout
  591. \end_inset
  592. </cell>
  593. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  594. \begin_inset Text
  595. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  596. Local network only
  597. \end_layout
  598. \end_inset
  599. </cell>
  600. </row>
  601. <row>
  602. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  603. \begin_inset Text
  604. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  605. epmap (135 / tcp)
  606. \end_layout
  607. \end_inset
  608. </cell>
  609. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  610. \begin_inset Text
  611. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  612. Log
  613. \end_layout
  614. \end_inset
  615. </cell>
  616. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  617. \begin_inset Text
  618. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  619. Windows specific
  620. \end_layout
  621. \end_inset
  622. </cell>
  623. </row>
  624. <row>
  625. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  626. \begin_inset Text
  627. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  628. general / CPE-T
  629. \end_layout
  630. \end_inset
  631. </cell>
  632. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  633. \begin_inset Text
  634. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  635. Log
  636. \end_layout
  637. \end_inset
  638. </cell>
  639. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  640. \begin_inset Text
  641. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  642. Windows specific
  643. \end_layout
  644. \end_inset
  645. </cell>
  646. </row>
  647. <row>
  648. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  649. \begin_inset Text
  650. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  651. general / HOST-T
  652. \end_layout
  653. \end_inset
  654. </cell>
  655. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  656. \begin_inset Text
  657. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  658. Log
  659. \end_layout
  660. \end_inset
  661. </cell>
  662. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  663. \begin_inset Text
  664. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  665. Windows specific
  666. \end_layout
  667. \end_inset
  668. </cell>
  669. </row>
  670. <row>
  671. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  672. \begin_inset Text
  673. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  674. general / icmp
  675. \end_layout
  676. \end_inset
  677. </cell>
  678. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  679. \begin_inset Text
  680. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  681. Log
  682. \end_layout
  683. \end_inset
  684. </cell>
  685. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  686. \begin_inset Text
  687. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  688. Internet layer
  689. \end_layout
  690. \end_inset
  691. </cell>
  692. </row>
  693. <row>
  694. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  695. \begin_inset Text
  696. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  697. general / tcp
  698. \end_layout
  699. \end_inset
  700. </cell>
  701. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  702. \begin_inset Text
  703. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  704. Log
  705. \end_layout
  706. \end_inset
  707. </cell>
  708. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  709. \begin_inset Text
  710. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  711. Transport layer
  712. \end_layout
  713. \end_inset
  714. </cell>
  715. </row>
  716. <row>
  717. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  718. \begin_inset Text
  719. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  720. microsoft-ds (445 / tcp)
  721. \end_layout
  722. \end_inset
  723. </cell>
  724. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  725. \begin_inset Text
  726. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  727. Log
  728. \end_layout
  729. \end_inset
  730. </cell>
  731. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  732. \begin_inset Text
  733. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  734. Windows specific
  735. \end_layout
  736. \end_inset
  737. </cell>
  738. </row>
  739. <row>
  740. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  741. \begin_inset Text
  742. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  743. netbios-ssn (139 / tcp)
  744. \end_layout
  745. \end_inset
  746. </cell>
  747. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  748. \begin_inset Text
  749. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  750. Log
  751. \end_layout
  752. \end_inset
  753. </cell>
  754. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  755. \begin_inset Text
  756. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  757. Windows specific
  758. \end_layout
  759. \end_inset
  760. </cell>
  761. </row>
  762. </lyxtabular>
  763. \end_inset
  764. \end_layout
  765. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  766. \begin_inset Caption Standard
  767. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  768. Service fingerprinting results
  769. \end_layout
  770. \end_inset
  771. \end_layout
  772. \end_inset
  773. \end_layout
  774. \begin_layout Subsection
  775. Remote host fingerprinting
  776. \end_layout
  777. \begin_layout Standard
  778. The operating system is Microsoft Windows.
  779. I deducted it from the large number of Windows specific services running
  780. on the machine.
  781. Also, the OS fingerprinting test with 100% probability states that it is
  782. Microsoft Windows.
  783. It is also fairly easy to learn more about the system by running
  784. \begin_inset Formula $nmap$
  785. \end_inset
  786. with
  787. \begin_inset Formula $-O$
  788. \end_inset
  789. flag on a Linux system with escalated permissions.
  790. \end_layout
  791. \begin_layout Subsection
  792. Vulnerability scanning
  793. \end_layout
  794. \begin_layout Standard
  795. Table 3 shows the open ports and the threat level.
  796. It differs from the previous Table 2 with one entry - SMBClient.
  797. \end_layout
  798. \begin_layout Standard
  799. Definitely, using ntp is dangerous in non-private networks as the information
  800. sent over the protocol is not encrypted.
  801. \end_layout
  802. \begin_layout Standard
  803. The output from the scan in one section is
  804. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  805. \end_inset
  806. It was possible to log into the remote host using the SMB protocol
  807. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  808. \end_inset
  809. .
  810. I find it very interesting and assume that OpenVAS was using dictionary
  811. attack against SMBClient.
  812. And if so, it is unclear why the threat level was set to
  813. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  814. \end_inset
  815. Log
  816. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  817. \end_inset
  818. instead of something higher.
  819. \end_layout
  820. \begin_layout Standard
  821. The scan also discovered 3 NetBIOS names: NEWYORK (WINS client), WORKGROUP
  822. (domain name), NEWYORK (computer name).
  823. It is suggested by the OpenVAS to filter incoming traffic to the port 137
  824. / udp.
  825. \end_layout
  826. \begin_layout Standard
  827. \begin_inset Float table
  828. placement H
  829. wide false
  830. sideways false
  831. status open
  832. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  833. \noindent
  834. \align center
  835. \begin_inset Tabular
  836. <lyxtabular version="3" rows="12" columns="2">
  837. <features tabularvalignment="middle">
  838. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  839. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  840. <row>
  841. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  842. \begin_inset Text
  843. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  844. \series bold
  845. Service (Port)
  846. \end_layout
  847. \end_inset
  848. </cell>
  849. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  850. \begin_inset Text
  851. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  852. \series bold
  853. Threat Level
  854. \end_layout
  855. \end_inset
  856. </cell>
  857. </row>
  858. <row>
  859. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  860. \begin_inset Text
  861. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  862. ntp (123 / udp)
  863. \end_layout
  864. \end_inset
  865. </cell>
  866. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  867. \begin_inset Text
  868. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  869. Low
  870. \end_layout
  871. \end_inset
  872. </cell>
  873. </row>
  874. <row>
  875. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  876. \begin_inset Text
  877. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  878. telnet (23 / tcp)
  879. \end_layout
  880. \end_inset
  881. </cell>
  882. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  883. \begin_inset Text
  884. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  885. Low
  886. \end_layout
  887. \end_inset
  888. </cell>
  889. </row>
  890. <row>
  891. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  892. \begin_inset Text
  893. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  894. telnet (23 / tcp)
  895. \end_layout
  896. \end_inset
  897. </cell>
  898. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  899. \begin_inset Text
  900. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  901. Log
  902. \end_layout
  903. \end_inset
  904. </cell>
  905. </row>
  906. <row>
  907. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  908. \begin_inset Text
  909. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  910. epmap (135 / tcp)
  911. \end_layout
  912. \end_inset
  913. </cell>
  914. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  915. \begin_inset Text
  916. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  917. Log
  918. \end_layout
  919. \end_inset
  920. </cell>
  921. </row>
  922. <row>
  923. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  924. \begin_inset Text
  925. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  926. general / CPE-T
  927. \end_layout
  928. \end_inset
  929. </cell>
  930. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  931. \begin_inset Text
  932. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  933. Log
  934. \end_layout
  935. \end_inset
  936. </cell>
  937. </row>
  938. <row>
  939. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  940. \begin_inset Text
  941. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  942. general / HOST-T
  943. \end_layout
  944. \end_inset
  945. </cell>
  946. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  947. \begin_inset Text
  948. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  949. Log
  950. \end_layout
  951. \end_inset
  952. </cell>
  953. </row>
  954. <row>
  955. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  956. \begin_inset Text
  957. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  958. general / SMBClient
  959. \end_layout
  960. \end_inset
  961. </cell>
  962. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  963. \begin_inset Text
  964. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  965. Log
  966. \end_layout
  967. \end_inset
  968. </cell>
  969. </row>
  970. <row>
  971. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  972. \begin_inset Text
  973. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  974. general / icmp
  975. \end_layout
  976. \end_inset
  977. </cell>
  978. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  979. \begin_inset Text
  980. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  981. Log
  982. \end_layout
  983. \end_inset
  984. </cell>
  985. </row>
  986. <row>
  987. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  988. \begin_inset Text
  989. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  990. general / tcp
  991. \end_layout
  992. \end_inset
  993. </cell>
  994. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  995. \begin_inset Text
  996. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  997. Log
  998. \end_layout
  999. \end_inset
  1000. </cell>
  1001. </row>
  1002. <row>
  1003. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1004. \begin_inset Text
  1005. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1006. microsoft-ds (445 / tcp)
  1007. \end_layout
  1008. \end_inset
  1009. </cell>
  1010. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1011. \begin_inset Text
  1012. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1013. Log
  1014. \end_layout
  1015. \end_inset
  1016. </cell>
  1017. </row>
  1018. <row>
  1019. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1020. \begin_inset Text
  1021. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1022. netbios-ssn (139 / tcp)
  1023. \end_layout
  1024. \end_inset
  1025. </cell>
  1026. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1027. \begin_inset Text
  1028. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1029. Log
  1030. \end_layout
  1031. \end_inset
  1032. </cell>
  1033. </row>
  1034. </lyxtabular>
  1035. \end_inset
  1036. \end_layout
  1037. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1038. \begin_inset Caption Standard
  1039. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1040. Vulnerability scanning results
  1041. \end_layout
  1042. \end_inset
  1043. \end_layout
  1044. \end_inset
  1045. \end_layout
  1046. \begin_layout Section
  1047. Discussion
  1048. \end_layout
  1049. \begin_layout Standard
  1050. In my opinion, in order to improve security the system should not be using
  1051. telnet because of lack of security in the telnet protocol.
  1052. And even though the SMBClient was marked as
  1053. \begin_inset Quotes eld
  1054. \end_inset
  1055. Low
  1056. \begin_inset Quotes erd
  1057. \end_inset
  1058. , I think it is a good idea to stop using the service and port in general
  1059. and switch, for example, to ftp and cups services.
  1060. Moreover, one should evaluate the need for the remaining services.
  1061. It is always a good idea to strip away the programs not used to keep the
  1062. system clean.
  1063. Even if the system is using a particular program, using well known programs
  1064. that are designed with security in mind and has strong community behind
  1065. (for example, the Linux/GNU ecosystem) to reduce security threats.
  1066. From my subjective point of view, using *nix operating systems is a modern,
  1067. fast, maintainable, and, most important, secure operating sytem that can
  1068. be deployed on almost any type of machine.
  1069. I would strongly suggest trying such operating system and serve the necessary
  1070. services from it.
  1071. \end_layout
  1072. \begin_layout Standard
  1073. \begin_inset Float table
  1074. placement H
  1075. wide false
  1076. sideways false
  1077. status open
  1078. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1079. \noindent
  1080. \align center
  1081. \begin_inset Tabular
  1082. <lyxtabular version="3" rows="12" columns="3">
  1083. <features tabularvalignment="middle">
  1084. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  1085. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  1086. <column alignment="center" valignment="top">
  1087. <row>
  1088. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1089. \begin_inset Text
  1090. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1091. \series bold
  1092. Service (Port)
  1093. \end_layout
  1094. \end_inset
  1095. </cell>
  1096. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1097. \begin_inset Text
  1098. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1099. \series bold
  1100. Threat Level
  1101. \end_layout
  1102. \end_inset
  1103. </cell>
  1104. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1105. \begin_inset Text
  1106. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1107. \series bold
  1108. Comment
  1109. \end_layout
  1110. \end_inset
  1111. </cell>
  1112. </row>
  1113. <row>
  1114. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1115. \begin_inset Text
  1116. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1117. ntp (123 / udp)
  1118. \end_layout
  1119. \end_inset
  1120. </cell>
  1121. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1122. \begin_inset Text
  1123. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1124. Low
  1125. \end_layout
  1126. \end_inset
  1127. </cell>
  1128. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1129. \begin_inset Text
  1130. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1131. Widely used, used by industry
  1132. \end_layout
  1133. \end_inset
  1134. </cell>
  1135. </row>
  1136. <row>
  1137. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1138. \begin_inset Text
  1139. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1140. telnet (23 / tcp)
  1141. \end_layout
  1142. \end_inset
  1143. </cell>
  1144. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1145. \begin_inset Text
  1146. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1147. Low
  1148. \end_layout
  1149. \end_inset
  1150. </cell>
  1151. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1152. \begin_inset Text
  1153. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1154. Local network only
  1155. \end_layout
  1156. \end_inset
  1157. </cell>
  1158. </row>
  1159. <row>
  1160. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1161. \begin_inset Text
  1162. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1163. telnet (23 / tcp)
  1164. \end_layout
  1165. \end_inset
  1166. </cell>
  1167. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1168. \begin_inset Text
  1169. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1170. Log
  1171. \end_layout
  1172. \end_inset
  1173. </cell>
  1174. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1175. \begin_inset Text
  1176. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1177. Local network only
  1178. \end_layout
  1179. \end_inset
  1180. </cell>
  1181. </row>
  1182. <row>
  1183. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1184. \begin_inset Text
  1185. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1186. epmap (135 / tcp)
  1187. \end_layout
  1188. \end_inset
  1189. </cell>
  1190. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1191. \begin_inset Text
  1192. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1193. Log
  1194. \end_layout
  1195. \end_inset
  1196. </cell>
  1197. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1198. \begin_inset Text
  1199. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1200. Windows specific
  1201. \end_layout
  1202. \end_inset
  1203. </cell>
  1204. </row>
  1205. <row>
  1206. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1207. \begin_inset Text
  1208. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1209. general / CPE-T
  1210. \end_layout
  1211. \end_inset
  1212. </cell>
  1213. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1214. \begin_inset Text
  1215. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1216. Log
  1217. \end_layout
  1218. \end_inset
  1219. </cell>
  1220. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1221. \begin_inset Text
  1222. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1223. Windows specific
  1224. \end_layout
  1225. \end_inset
  1226. </cell>
  1227. </row>
  1228. <row>
  1229. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1230. \begin_inset Text
  1231. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1232. general / HOST-T
  1233. \end_layout
  1234. \end_inset
  1235. </cell>
  1236. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1237. \begin_inset Text
  1238. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1239. Log
  1240. \end_layout
  1241. \end_inset
  1242. </cell>
  1243. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1244. \begin_inset Text
  1245. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1246. Windows specific
  1247. \end_layout
  1248. \end_inset
  1249. </cell>
  1250. </row>
  1251. <row>
  1252. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1253. \begin_inset Text
  1254. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1255. general / SMBClient
  1256. \end_layout
  1257. \end_inset
  1258. </cell>
  1259. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1260. \begin_inset Text
  1261. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1262. Log
  1263. \end_layout
  1264. \end_inset
  1265. </cell>
  1266. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1267. \begin_inset Text
  1268. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1269. Windows specific, OpenVAS was able to login
  1270. \end_layout
  1271. \end_inset
  1272. </cell>
  1273. </row>
  1274. <row>
  1275. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1276. \begin_inset Text
  1277. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1278. general / icmp
  1279. \end_layout
  1280. \end_inset
  1281. </cell>
  1282. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1283. \begin_inset Text
  1284. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1285. Log
  1286. \end_layout
  1287. \end_inset
  1288. </cell>
  1289. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1290. \begin_inset Text
  1291. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1292. Internet layer
  1293. \end_layout
  1294. \end_inset
  1295. </cell>
  1296. </row>
  1297. <row>
  1298. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1299. \begin_inset Text
  1300. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1301. general / tcp
  1302. \end_layout
  1303. \end_inset
  1304. </cell>
  1305. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1306. \begin_inset Text
  1307. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1308. Log
  1309. \end_layout
  1310. \end_inset
  1311. </cell>
  1312. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1313. \begin_inset Text
  1314. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1315. Transport layer
  1316. \end_layout
  1317. \end_inset
  1318. </cell>
  1319. </row>
  1320. <row>
  1321. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1322. \begin_inset Text
  1323. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1324. microsoft-ds (445 / tcp)
  1325. \end_layout
  1326. \end_inset
  1327. </cell>
  1328. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1329. \begin_inset Text
  1330. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1331. Log
  1332. \end_layout
  1333. \end_inset
  1334. </cell>
  1335. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1336. \begin_inset Text
  1337. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1338. Windows specific
  1339. \end_layout
  1340. \end_inset
  1341. </cell>
  1342. </row>
  1343. <row>
  1344. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1345. \begin_inset Text
  1346. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1347. netbios-ssn (139 / tcp)
  1348. \end_layout
  1349. \end_inset
  1350. </cell>
  1351. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
  1352. \begin_inset Text
  1353. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1354. Log
  1355. \end_layout
  1356. \end_inset
  1357. </cell>
  1358. <cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
  1359. \begin_inset Text
  1360. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1361. Windows specific
  1362. \end_layout
  1363. \end_inset
  1364. </cell>
  1365. </row>
  1366. </lyxtabular>
  1367. \end_inset
  1368. \end_layout
  1369. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1370. \begin_inset Caption Standard
  1371. \begin_layout Plain Layout
  1372. Summary of vulnerability scan recommendations
  1373. \end_layout
  1374. \end_inset
  1375. \end_layout
  1376. \end_inset
  1377. \end_layout
  1378. \begin_layout Section
  1379. Conclusions
  1380. \end_layout
  1381. \begin_layout Standard
  1382. With some minor exceptions, the given host can be considered safe.
  1383. I would like to present some of my recommendations on the following list:
  1384. \end_layout
  1385. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1386. Monitor your system.
  1387. A complete overview of what is happening with the system (logs, system
  1388. resources, users, etc.) is crucial to keep it safe.
  1389. \end_layout
  1390. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1391. Check for software updates.
  1392. Bugs are discovered frequently and having your system patched is the way
  1393. to operate.
  1394. \end_layout
  1395. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1396. Perform security tasks.
  1397. Tasks such as penetration and vulnerability tests might pinpoint the system
  1398. weaknesses.
  1399. \end_layout
  1400. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1401. Protect the system as early as possible.
  1402. Early protection means fewer threats to higher stages, eg.
  1403. the border or the inside stage.
  1404. \end_layout
  1405. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1406. Use common sense.
  1407. Do not open strange emails offering fortune or unknown programs.
  1408. \end_layout
  1409. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1410. Backup your system.
  1411. Use the 3-2-1 rule if possible - 3 total copies of the data, stored in
  1412. 2 different mediums, and at least 1 offline copy.
  1413. \end_layout
  1414. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1415. Hire professionals.
  1416. The price for a corrupted system most definitely is higher than spending
  1417. a bit extra on experienced professionals.
  1418. \end_layout
  1419. \begin_layout Section
  1420. References
  1421. \end_layout
  1422. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1423. \begin_inset CommandInset label
  1424. LatexCommand label
  1425. name "enu:Magnus-Almgren,-Computer"
  1426. \end_inset
  1427. Magnus Almgren, Computer Security Lecture 1 VULNERABILITIES, THREATS and
  1428. PROTECTION MECHANISMS, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Chalmers
  1429. University of Technology
  1430. \end_layout
  1431. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1432. \begin_inset CommandInset label
  1433. LatexCommand label
  1434. name "enu:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fi"
  1435. \end_inset
  1436. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OpenVAS-7-Structure.png
  1437. \end_layout
  1438. \begin_layout Enumerate
  1439. \begin_inset CommandInset label
  1440. LatexCommand label
  1441. name "enu:Karen-Scarfone,-Murugiah"
  1442. \end_inset
  1443. Karen Scarfone, Murugiah Souppaya, Amanda Cody, Angela Orebaugh, Technical
  1444. Guide to Information Security Testing and Assessment, Recommendations of
  1445. the National Institute of Standards and Technology
  1446. \end_layout
  1447. \end_body
  1448. \end_document